There are a few methods of voltage and current surge protection in the industry, and the most effective are Optical Isolators and Surge Protectors: Optical Isolators An optical isolator (or opto-isolator) is used to block high voltages and transients so that a surge in one part of the system will not disrupt or destroy other parts. Optical isolation uses an LED (Light Emitting Device) and a photosensitive transistor to transfer data across the isolation barrier –
typically an air gap; in other words, data is transmitted using light instead of electrical signals, so there is no physical connections between the grounds and the data lines, thus removing the ground loop problems and effectively preventing electrical surges and spikes from destroying other parts of the system. Furthermore, because optical isolation uses light to transmit data across the isolation barrier, it also gains the advantage of immunity from electrical- and magnetic-field interference. This makes optical isolation an effective solution in industrial areas where strong electric or magnetic fields could be present.