The resonant sensors require both a means of structural excitation as well as a means of resonant frequency detection. Many combinations of transduction are utilized for these purposes, including electrostatic excitation, capacitive detection, magnetic excitation and detection, thermal excitation, and optical detection.
Many microsensors are based upon strain measurement. The primary means of measuring strain is via piezoresistive strain gages, which is an analog form of measurement. Piezoresistive strain gages, also known as semiconductor gages, change resistance in response to a mechanical strain.